Case studies in library and information science ethics Case Studies in Library and Information Science Ethics ( ): Elizabeth A. Buchanan, Kathrine A. Henderson: Books.
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While the formats were originally created to facilitate printing of paper catalog cards, they are still in use today as the basis for most computerized library catalogs.

Introduction to Library and Information Science/Print version

MARC 21 is used in many countries of the world today. MARC documentation has been translated into several languages. After it has been modified for web use will it still be MARC? At the same conference Fred Kilgour, the man who championed MARC and is responsible for much of its success, speculated that in the next 30 years Marc will be replaced. In my opinion MARC has been a resilient format, but may be superseded by formats more adaptive to digital environments. The RDA Test Committee's Final Report suggested that new ways of cataloging are unlikely to yield significant benefits unless they are implemented on top of a new means for capturing and sharing bibliographic data.

In other words, many experts believe that the MARC format is holding back the development of better cataloging practices. Some of the most noteworthy requirements are that the new environment will support bibliographic description expressed as both textual data and linked data URIs; accommodate RDA, AACR2, DACS, VRA Core, and CCO descriptive rules; and provision for data that support or accompany bibliographic data, such as authority data, holdings data, preservation data, and technical data. The plan also notes that catalogers are likely to interact with the new data carrier on a more abstract level than they currently interact with MARC.

Historically, cataloging practice has been devoted to describing "books". Early attempts to standardize cataloging practice internationally, such as the Paris Principles, only addressed the cataloging of printed books. The Paris Principles describe themselves as only being applicable to "catalogues of printed books in which entries under authors' names and, where these are inappropriate or insufficient, under the titles of works are combined in one alphabetical sequence.

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Contemporary library catalogs may include reference databases, e-books, DVDs, computer software, websites, blogs, audiobooks, digitized archival materials, and countless other resources. As the number of formats described in library catalogs has grown, the meaning of the term book has become less clear. As Barbara Tillett notes:. Because of these issues, the cataloging community felt that it was necessary to have a new conceptual model for cataloging that didn't center around the ambiguous book.

The Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, or FRBR, was an attempt to clarify this hazy terminology, and to provide a model that was independent of particular cataloging codes and material formats. A traditional catalog record combines description at each of these levels, but generally centers around a description at the manifestation level. After defining these Group One Entities, FRBR then continues to define relationships between these entities and each other, as well as with other entities, such as authors, publishers, and other people and corporate bodies Group Two entities , and topics Group Three entities.

The DDC is in its 23rd edition and is the "world's most widely used classification system. Membership includes updates on its web versions quarterly, and a semiannual DDC newsletter, offers to conferences and workshops, OCLC articles and case studies. This website is very simple to use. It is not too complicated and gets to the point if your library has a need for it. As it pertains to the chapter the information this site provides is a basic source to use when learning about DDC. The Dewey Decimal system is such a huge part of so many libraries it is hard to think of not having such a well structure organizational tool to use.

They are similar to a building architect except they do their designing for a website. An IA Information Architect makes up the logical structure of a website.

They look at the needs of the users and design the visual and interaction design according to the user experience, making it easier to find information and to work around a site. This also will make it easier to manage the site. The IA then draws up blueprints and works closely with the technical, graphic, and editorial team members to finish the site.

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IA Chris Farnum is very knowledgeable and informative in their profession and goes on to explain that there are several ways to find out more about his field through books, seminars and college courses. With all of the options and choices of sites out in the World Wide Web, in this day and age, I can see a large need to make your site the most marketable and user-friendly as possible.

Artificial intelligence has two main applications in information retrieval: organization of application methods, and the design of classification methods. There is no shared terminology between the fields, making it difficult for the two areas to collaborate initially. Linda C.

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Smith, in her article "Artificial Intelligence and Information Retrieval," predicts that as artificial intelligence and information retrieval continue to expand there will still need to be an increase in the cognitive ability of the users to discern what has been retrieved from the original search. The other concern for users was the anticipation that in order to use the system, a user would need to be experts to get the desired results.

At the time of the article, there was a growing interest in the ability of these retrieval systems to answer questions and retrieve facts, both items we see have come to fruition today in modern search engines used every day. Artificial intelligence was seen to have both short term and long term effects on information retrieval. In the long term, it would modify the document representations to improve responses.

Little had changed in that time as far as attitudes and outlook for the feasibility of using artificial intelligence techniques as practical applications in library science and information retrieval.

With hindsight on my side, it is interesting to see that common search engines use the kind of aided searches to find related topics that the author thought only the experts would be able to complete. Previous research indicates that domain expertise improves online search performance. Other research shows that WWW browsing experience does not play a significant role in achieving a higher efficiency or accuracy level in a search. The authors' study tests fourth-graders' online search performance in relation to how proficient they were in WWW use; the level of domain expertise Dutch literature was consistent.

The results showed that WWW experts were better than novices at locating Web sites but that WWW experience does not substantially affect how well information is located on a specific Web site. The authors argue that locating Web sites involves more use of search engines, a skill in which the experts are more proficient, but finding information on a Web site generally involves browsing, in which WWW experience is not as important. Although the novices were not true beginners and the experts not professionals, the novices would greatly benefit from courses teaching search skills, such as how to use search engines and Boolean operators.

I think that instruction in determining the relevance and validity of search results is just as important as search skills, but the article does not address this.

However, judging relevance depends on the user's knowledge of a subject that school librarians are not often responsible for teaching. A good relationship among teachers, school librarians, and the WWW must emerge for students to receive the best possible education. Relevance is defined broadly as a measurement of the effectiveness of an exchange or contact of information between a source and a user, all based on the differing views of what constitutes effective communication.

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This concept is the basis for how entire information retrieval systems are designed and utilized. There are many differing views on what this means, but all of them are somewhat related and interconnected regardless of how they are defined or utilized.

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The author describes in great detail, the framework for these differing views and the underlying philosophies behind each concept of what constitutes effective communication. He argues that all of these differing constructs are incomplete, yet correct ; depending on where one starts their examination of the communication process. He ends his paper with an appropriate call for more study on the subject.

His paper is a recap of the opposing arguments of three decades ago, but in fact is more important now than ever before, as new information systems come on line and into being the Internet, the electronic database, funding for collections, etc. Eric Miller and Ralph Swick describe the Semantic Web as "an extension of the current Web in which the meaning of information is clearly and explicitly linked from the information itself, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation.

The Semantic Web is a stack of technologies that seeks to convert the current Web, which is full of unstructured and semi-structured documents, into a "web of data" where documents are all available in machine-readable formats as well as human-readable ones. Semantic Web enthusiasts argue that this abundance of machine-readable formats will allow both human users and automated technologies to find, share, and combine information more easily. Notice also that all of the properties and many of their values are links that you can click on. Most of these links are also available in machine-readable formats, which means that a machine could follow these links repeatedly to integrate information about Audre Lorde from numerous sources.

Miller and Hillmann, in order to make sense of the semantic contextual web, describe the makeup of the web: semantics, structure, and syntax. Semantics refers to the context of information and its meaning. The structure encompasses how the information is organized, and the syntax is how the semantics and structure are communicated. Libraries are best equipped to embrace XML and RDF to address cataloging and web-based interfaces to share information. The article is succinct and straightforward, and the authors' attempts to decode these swirling acronyms should be commended.

Now that the semantic web has greater possibilities, libraries should include items usually forgotten such as older journals or sound files. This is very postmodern indeed. How prepared are public librarians to learn these new languages? Patrons are ready to see their public library as a resource not just for books and Internet access, but are libraries ready to deliver? Knowledge Management is an outgrowth of data and information management.

Increased competition and a mobile workforce with analytical skills and reduced loyalty to the organization make the concept of knowledge management and retention, appealing to managers. Knowledge Management KM , once the sole domain of the corporate world, is now necessary to many information disciplines. Information professionals need an understanding of what makes KM effective.